The Government of Canada will also develop national and local diagnostic tools to assist with the identification of populations and places most at-risk of trafficking in Canada. In addition, this tool will gather information on related forms of exploitation, and identify resources and populate an inventory of prevention practices. These efforts will inform prevention strategies at the national and local levels and allow better targeting of prevention efforts.
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Canada will also seek to prevent human trafficking internationally. Under the Children and Youth Strategy, the Canadian International Development Agency supports a range of programs which address the factors that make children and youth vulnerable to human trafficking. These include investments in health and education, and programs to ensure that schools are safe and free from violence and which protect the human rights of children and youth. Through this Strategy, the Government of Canada will support international partners to increase capacity to prevent and combat human trafficking by developing tools, resources and by providing training to properly equip partners to review and design programs with consideration of unsafe migration and human trafficking risks; ensuring investments include support for community-based women and youth protection mechanisms; ensuring investments in education include the systematic incorporation of curriculums that tackle safe migration and human trafficking scenarios; and, ensuring birth registration is included and promoted in bilateral partners' frameworks and throughout programming.
The Government of Canada will continue to assist all victims of crime, including trafficking victims; to work with the provinces and territories to deliver services responsive to the needs of trafficking victims; and to promote greater understanding of the needs of trafficked persons with a view to promoting their physical, psychological and social recovery. Every trafficked person requires a range of support measures to address their particular needs and to assist them in recovering physically, psychologically and socially. In the case of foreign national victims, they may require additional supports and services including, for instance, some form of immigration status.
Comprehensive protection for trafficked persons encompasses many things. First and foremost, it requires the identification of victims of trafficking in a timely manner to ensure their safety and separation from their traffickers and to provide access to immediate health care needs. The Government of Canada condemns all forms of forced labour, including exploitation tied to human trafficking. Both foreign nationals and Canadian workers benefit from the efforts of the federal government, the provinces and territories which have responsibility for the enforcement of labour standards, occupational health and safety, and labour relations within their own jurisdiction.
Furthermore, Citizenship and Immigration Canada and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada work together with a range of partners on key issues related to the Temporary Foreign Worker Program, a program that supports Canada's economic growth while providing appropriate protections to foreign nationals beyond those in place under provincials and territorial laws. This includes ongoing efforts to ensure that the Live-in Caregiver Program remains fair and equitable for both workers and employers, and that measures are in place to protect participants' rights and security.
To protect and meet the needs of trafficking victims, the Government of Canada has taken many steps, such as enabling immigration officers to issue short-term temporary resident permits to foreign national victims of human trafficking and providing interim federal health care for such victims. Furthermore, Citizenship and Immigration Canada will consider opportunities for improving current measures in this area. In deciding whether or not to impose or lift visa requirements, Citizenship and Immigration Canada will consider, among other factors, whether a country has been a significant source country for human trafficking.
In Canada, victims of trafficking are not required to testify against their trafficker to gain temporary or permanent resident status. This number includes subsequent permits issued to the same victim to maintain legal status in Canada. Of these victims identified by CIC, 16 were males and 54 were females including one under 18 years old. Three 3 others were minor dependents of adult victims.
One victim was subjected to both labour and sexual exploitation, and one reported another kind of abuse. Key source countries included Thailand 30 , Moldova 10 , the Philippines 9 and Mexico 6. The Government will also provide support to victims and victim serving organizations through the Department of Justice Victims Fund, which allows provinces and territories and non-governmental organizations to request funding to enhance services for Canadian and foreign national victims.
It also provides financial assistance to victims of human trafficking in specified circumstances. The Victims Fund has supported trafficking in persons projects including, in partnership with Public Safety Canada's Contribution Program to Combat Child Exploitation and Human Trafficking , the development and delivery of a training curriculum and toolkit on human trafficking for first responders; the delivery of awareness raising sessions on services for trafficking victims; the delivery of a workshop on trafficking for service providers to increase skills and awareness; the delivery of training sessions to assist service providers in identifying trafficking victims; and community workshops to raise awareness of trafficking in persons.
Because women and girls are most often victims of trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, the Government will invest in initiatives to end violence against women and girls. For example, Status of Women Canada's programming priority area, "Ending violence against women and girls", includes project funding to support female victims of human trafficking. Status of Women Canada is supporting the development of culturally specific services for immigrant and refugee women victims of violence and human trafficking at an Edmonton area shelter.
The shelter, specifically for immigrant and refugee women, is the first of its kind in Canada and includes outreach services, workshops, a peer mentoring program, and liaison with key stakeholders and law enforcement, social services and immigration services.
Since , Citizenship and Immigration Canada and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada have taken steps to improve protections for temporary foreign workers and reinforce employer compliance with program requirements. In April , regulatory changes were implemented to the broader Temporary Foreign Worker Program that, among other provisions, improves the assessment of job offer genuineness, and would deny program access to employers who do not abide by the terms of their job offers. In April , regulatory and administrative changes to the Live-In Caregiver Program - a component of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program - were implemented to increase protections and program flexibility.
Changes included live-in caregivers receiving employer-paid benefits i. In addition, an enhanced mandatory employment contract now protects them with respect to hours or work, overtime and other leave entitlements. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada will work on amendments to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations based on proposed legislative text that was tabled on April 26, as part of the Jobs, Growth and Long-term Prosperity Act that are expected to afford the departments greater authority to monitor employer compliance with program requirements, as well as stronger consequences in cases of non-compliance.
Furthermore, through better prevention and detection, the Government will implement measures to improve the protection of vulnerable foreign nationals, including female immigrants who arrive alone in Canada, from forced labour and sexual exploitation at an early stage. Canada Border Services Agency will undertake efforts to raise awareness with vulnerable foreign nationals at ports of entry. Also, in order to better protect vulnerable persons who are at risk of being trafficked into Canada to work in situations where they could be subject to exploitation, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada will explore options to prevent the sex trade from accessing the Temporary Foreign Worker Program.
To protect foreign nationals from labour exploitation, including through human trafficking, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada will enhance its information and awareness materials for the Temporary Foreign Worker Program, and will also improve internal detection and prevention protocols to identify high-risk employers and explore policy development for on-site employer visits. It will also explore improvements to employer monitoring in the Live-in Caregiver Program.
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada will continue to monitor recent enhancements to the protection of live-in caregivers, while considering the need for further changes. The Government of Canada will build on current efforts to bring traffickers to justice and to strengthen the criminal justice system's responses to this crime. The Government of Canada is committed to combating and disrupting criminal organizations and others involved in the trafficking of people to Canada and within Canada.
The Bill was introduced by Conservative Member of Parliament Joy Smith, and includes two amendments that will help combat human trafficking in Canada and abroad. The first amendment would provide a non-exhaustive list of factors that a court may take into consideration when determining whether the legal test of exploitation has been made out.
Such factors include the use of threats of force or other forms of coercion and deception. The second amendment would enable the Canadian prosecution of Canadian citizens or permanent residents who commit any of our trafficking in persons offences abroad. The investigation of criminal offences in Canada is undertaken at the federal, provincial or municipal level, and police officers and prosecutors have a range of tools available to them to bring traffickers to justice. Investigative techniques such as undercover operations or electronic surveillance are permitted in Canadian law and are invaluable tools in human trafficking investigations.
Police can also draw on information collected by departments and agencies such as Canada's Financial Transaction and Reports Analysis Centre which can provide financial intelligence regarding possible money laundering by suspected human traffickers. Since , the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's Human Trafficking National Coordination Center has coordinated awareness raising sessions that have been provided to over 39, officials from law enforcement, government and non-government organizations and the public on human trafficking, Canada's laws and how to assist victims.
Specific human trafficking offences in IRPA and the Criminal Code provide the basis for investigating and prosecuting this crime. Significant efforts have been pursued to train law enforcement and prosecutors on these new offences and on how to investigate and bring traffickers to justice. Enforcement of human trafficking legislation will be strengthened through the creation of a dedicated integrated team, led by the RCMP, to undertake proactive human trafficking investigations.
This will be the first integrated team in Canada to focus on all types of trafficking, and will be complemented and supported by the Canada Border Services Agency, and a criminal intelligence analyst. This integrated team will work in close partnerships with victim service providers. This approach will enhance cooperative efforts of law enforcement agencies to better identify organizations and individuals involved in human trafficking, and assist victims.
The location of the team will be based on current threat and risk assessment information. The National Action Plan also includes a number of measures to increase awareness and training for enforcement officials and prosecutors. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police will develop and coordinate specialized training for police officers through the Canadian Police College and will add human trafficking awareness to its cadet training curriculum. In addition, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police will develop a victim-centred guidebook for investigators to assist them in working with victims and will finalise the on-line human trafficking course for all Canadian law enforcement.
In partnership with the provinces and territories, the Government of Canada will enhance the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking. In particular, an operational handbook on investigation and prosecution of human trafficking offences in Canada for police and prosecutors will be developed and distributed. Efforts will also promote and explore opportunities to work with the National Judicial Institute to promote education on human trafficking amongst the judiciary. In order to improve operational collaboration and coordination, federal agencies such as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Passport Canada, Canada Border Services Agency, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, and Human Resources and Skills Development will work to develop and enhance partnerships with law enforcement at the municipal, provincial, national and international levels to improve information and intelligence sharing so that traffickers can be detected, investigated and prosecuted.
The Government of Canada will strengthen its relationships with relevant stakeholders to facilitate the ongoing development of effective policies and tools, to ensure a comprehensive and coordinated approach; and work to improve its ability to collect, track and report on data related to human trafficking in order to enhance knowledge and adapt our response appropriately, both domestically and on the international stage.
Canada was among the first countries in the world to explicitly recognize and promote partnerships as the "fourth P", acknowledging that it is a necessary component of any successful anti-trafficking strategy. Maintaining and developing strong partnerships both within and outside the federal government is critical; so too is a robust knowledge base informed by topical and relevant research into the nature and scope of human trafficking. The development of a logical and transparent framework to estimate the extent of this crime is critical to fully understanding the problem and to developing an effective and appropriate policy response.
That is why the Government will continue to lead and support work on this issue. Successfully combating this crime requires partnerships. By strengthening partnerships with civil society and other levels of government, overall efforts to respond to human trafficking in Canada will be greatly improved. The Government of Canada will engage stakeholders through online consultations and roundtables, and will invite human trafficking experts and stakeholders to present and discuss issues of concern with the Human Trafficking Taskforce.
Other efforts will include federal, provincial and territorial collaboration to develop and disseminate an operational handbook for police and prosecutors in relation to human trafficking cases as well as continuing to develop partnerships through the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's Human Trafficking Awareness Coordinators located across the country.
Reliable data are required to identify victims, ascertain the needs of survivors, and maximize the impact of public awareness campaigns. This National Action Plan will use existing partnerships to collect data on the extent and origins of human trafficking to better identify and track trends on human trafficking in Canada.
Furthermore, the Government will provide disaggregated data on the Temporary Resident Permits issued to foreign national victims of human trafficking. The Government will also share aggregated data regarding specifics on offenders and victims of human trafficking on request. Canada has been a leader in international anti-trafficking efforts across the globe and through its participation in international fora. Canadian experts work with international organizations, including the United Nations and the Organization of American States, to contribute to the global fight against trafficking, consistent with our commitments under the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children.
The National Action Plan consolidates Canada's international efforts which include sharing our experience with partner countries and contributing to capacity building initiatives aimed at preventing and combating human trafficking abroad.
To this end, the Government of Canada will continue to promote the Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program in the Americas to international organizations, non-governmental organizations and countries to support projects in source and transit countries to combat human trafficking with a focus on organized crime networks, institutional capacity in the justice sector, and help for women and children.
The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade's Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program provides funding to states and organizations to enhance international capacity to prevent and respond to threats posed by international criminal activity, including human trafficking. Since , the Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program has supported projects aimed specifically at combating trafficking in persons, implemented by international partners such as:.
The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade's Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force provides policy, programming, and operational tools including civilian deployment for crisis response, stabilization and reconstruction efforts in acutely fragile or conflict-affected countries, and manages the Global Peace and Security Fund in for programming in stabilization, security and justice system reform, and international peace operations globally.
Every person who receives a financial or other material benefit, knowing that it results from the commission of an offence under subsection Every person who, for the purpose of committing or facilitating an offence under subsection It is also important to recognize that various laws of general application can apply to respond to trafficking including but not necessarily limited to kidnapping subsection 1 , forcible confinement subsection 2 , aggravated sexual assault section , extortion section and the organized crime sections Estimates of the number of victims vary depending on the methodology employed in the studies.
For instance, the International Labour Organization estimates that between and , on average, each year, worldwide, at minimum, 2. It is important to note that these data do not include the number of trafficking victims who are Canadian citizens or permanent residents. Furthermore, data limitations do not permit a breakdown of the number of victims of trafficking who may have chosen to pursue other immigration options, such as applying for refugee protection or permanent residence for humanitarian and compassionate reasons.
Introduction What is Human Trafficking? Why do victims not come forward? Human Trafficking Offences in Canada Although the extent of human trafficking in Canada is difficult to determine, the following available statistics, as of April , provide some context: 25 convictions 41 victims under human trafficking specific offences in the Criminal Code enacted in This does not include the numerous other convictions for human trafficking related conduct under other criminal offences.
Approximately 56 cases currently before the courts, involving at least 85 accused and victims. At least 26 of these victims were under the age of 18 at the time of the alleged offence. While no convictions under that section have been registered, accused persons have been convicted under related IRPA provisions. Provide targeted human trafficking training and education for prosecutors and law enforcement Establish a dedicated integrated investigative team composed of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canada Border Services Agency and local police with the mandate to conduct proactive human trafficking investigations Enhance intelligence collection coordination and collaboration.