Michaela Hampf. At the same time, military service provided many women with mobility, education, and greater economic and personal autonomy.
D Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction familiar tone. Think of the humiliation.
What has show that military masculinities and femininities are a become of the manhood in America, that we have highly contested terrain. Whether women soldiers are to call on our women to do what has ever been perceived as threatening military efficiency or wheth- the duty of men? Two case histories of othered. My aim is to on the intersection of gender, race, sexuality and class. While I am p. Within the military institution, not arguing that the inclusion of women in a military gender is present in different, but interdependent and that depends on their exclusion, is per se subversive, overlapping processes, practices, images, ideologies, understanding the dispositif of sexuality at work in and distributions of power.
Military is the focus of the second part. Participation in the military has served chiatrists introduced the concept of homosexuality as and continues to serve as a determinant of the rights of a mental illness that came to replace the concept of citizens. She Greenberg, The construction categories of homosexuality to women. Thus, the military ment, became the first director of the WAAC.
One year they returned to Two Rock Ranch, which had since been repurposed as a Coast Guard training facility. She served in the U. Copyright Military Spouse. It became law on May 15, More than , of the 16 million were women. Why or why not?
On July 1, , Con- of their service. Charity Treadwell, In mobilizing for WWII, the women on the scene increased their resentment. Many African American free male soldiers for combat positions.
In general, Wacs, as well as their supporters in the African areas of deployment of female soldiers were similar American community, saw their service as part of a to their job opportunities in the civil labor force. As larger struggle for racial justice. In several instances, a labor resource for military planning, auxiliaries their resistance against discrimination, segregation were more reliable than civilian employees because and malassignment foreshadowed the protests of only personnel with some military status could be the Civil Rights movement in the s and controlled 24 h per day.
What was most important Meyer, , p. During WWII, the influence of was thought to challenge male dominance. Most of them did not stress the connections women not to join the corps. Who wants to go out with an ersatz man?
The perceived masculinization izations, such as the National Council of Negro of women by the military posed the threat of femini- Women, and socialist women did, in contrast, point zation to the military as a whole. Along with more than 16 prostitution cadre designed to fulfill the sexual needs million men who became soldiers, nearly as many of male soldiers.
Opponents to even a tem- week articles in , cited in Meyer, , p. Sexual respectability was de- extraordinarily concerned with a development of termined by race as well as class. Same- there was no room for rehabilitation by means of gender sexual relationships in the Armed Forces have punishment or disciplinary measures. When an at- a long tradition in the United States Armed Forces. Both believed in higher Army for sodomy on 11 March Throughout the war, venereal disease was bers, , p.
Thus soldiers and officers who a cause for rejection of women, although the Sur- engaged in same sex relations were court-martialed, geon General argued that from a public health usually imprisoned and dishonorably discharged on standpoint it would be best to treat them, as was the grounds of their behavior, not their sexual identity done with men Treadwell, , pp. Civilian scientists of the National Research Council In October , several million men had registered advocated that all Waacs be educated in matters of for the draft and the Selective Service System was sexual health and that contraceptives be issued or now in a position to exclude certain groups of dispensed from slot machines in WAAC latrines citizens.
In , the revised regulations for would be needed and that Army regulations the disposition of homosexual personnel reflected a concerning these matters intended for male personnel shift in the interpretation from a criminal offense to a were not applicable to female personnel. For the first time, WAC was defined as heterosexual orientation, white assaults with the intent to commit sodomy, indecent middle-class background, modesty and chastity assault and indecent acts were also covered Article Meyer, , p. Prison sentences for means to satisfy [.
Psychia- administrative apparatus for disposing of homosexual trists sought to apply their concepts of transference personnel that relied on hospitalization, diagnosis, and sublimation to the women soldiers.
While effeminate men challenged against the background of performativity: discursive the very core of military masculinity, lesbians, as categories for lesbianism in the s were not women, were already excluded from this core. Thus, sodomy but gender disguise and cross-dressing. In hundreds of sexuality.
Gender dorsed the repeal of Paragraph in the German stereotypes could define homosexuality even in the criminal code and called for tolerance towards homo- absence of romantic or erotic relations or desires. Homosexuality was try, mechanics and executive manual work.
Ellis believed that Sigmund Freud, who explained homosexuality in most cases of sexual inversion were inborn and purely psychological terms. He ac- ontogeny retraces the evolution of the species knowledged that some cases of inversion might be phylogeny , Freud concluded that homosexuality acquired but thought them rare and involving a was a developmental disorder. In his model, the congenital predisposition. In subsequent develop- organism [so] that it becomes more adapted than the ment, the sexual drive is invested first in the mouth, normal or average organism to experience sexual then in the anus and finally in the genitals, each stage attraction to the same sex.
He advocated abolishing criminal self, then the mother, the father, and ultimately statutes punishing homosexuality and was opposed to someone of the opposite sex. Anticipating form of same-sex friendship Freud, , pp. To prevent additional strain on the al- budgets and passed the Selective Training and Ser- ready overburdened military prisons, the new sys- vice Act.
Steckel, certain homosexual personnel, while allowing the were eager to show the War Department how retention of those whose services were deemed psychiatry could contribute to the war effort. Slowly, the clinical term homosexual be- One of the lessons from the First World War gan to replace the legal term sodomist as jurisdic- WWI was the necessity for the armed forces to tion over homosexuals was transferred from the reduce the number of returning soldiers who had criminal justice system to an expanded system of displayed symptoms that came to be subsumed hospitalization, diagnosis and discharge.
By , WWI shell shock cases accounted on Freudian psychoanalysis. All ter, Some people never reached that stage and became military responsibilities Menninger, , p. Three psychosexual categories emerged minimal role in causing mental disorders. The third category, on sick call or sent to sick bay to be hospitalized.
Intelligence officers In January , the new policy was in place. Stimson issued a new of other homosexual personnel.
It stated that sodomy determined whether the patient remained in the hos- was a serious crime and that all offenders should be pital, returned to duty, or would be discharged or tried by court-martial. However, exceptions were forced to resign as an officer. The other exception was the were sexually abstinent. They were not could be disciplined and returned to duty by an granted the benefit of counsel or the right to be officer exercising general court-martial jurisdic- present, cross-examine witnesses or obtain a copy of tion.
WAC recruiting suffered from the conversion Based on these guidelines, formulating a policy on as well as from bad publicity during the slander lesbian relationships in the corps proved difficult for campaign. In the WAC where , p. Surgeon General appointed Major Margaret D. Craig- In late September , Major Craighill Corps than were lesbian relationships Craighill, succeeded in convincing the War Department to order , p.
For WAC officials however, intraracial lesbian sex hygiene courses implemented by Major Craighill relationships constituted a greater threat to the legit- was designed to instruct officers in the proper ways of imacy of the corps than intraracial heterosexual handling cases of venereal disease, pregnancy and involvement with servicemen Meyer, , pp. Lesbian slang was widespread even among victims of hostility, accusations and sanctions such women who did not have sexual relationships with as discharge while often forming the nucleus of other women.